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KOSOVO - Data Protection and GDPR Review

The history of data protection in Kosovo is largely shaped by its complex political and socio-economic context, including the aftermath of the Yugoslav Wars, the declaration of independence in 2008, and the ongoing efforts to integrate into European and global frameworks. Below is a general overview, highlighting key developments and institutions related to data protection in Kosovo:

Early Years: Post-Independence

  1. Political Context: After declaring independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo set out to modernize its legal and institutional framework, including in the field of data protection.

  2. Initial Legislation: Kosovo's early legislative framework for data protection was often considered rudimentary, focusing primarily on public administration and law enforcement.

2010s: Efforts to Align with European Standards

  1. Data Protection Law: Kosovo adopted its first comprehensive Data Protection Law in 2010, modeled largely after the EU’s Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC.

  2. Establishment of the National Authority: A National Agency for Data Protection was established to supervise the implementation of data protection laws, promote awareness, and ensure that entities comply with the legal requirements.

  3. International Cooperation: Kosovo started engaging with various international bodies, although its political status has sometimes been a barrier to full cooperation.

Late 2010s: Influence of GDPR

  1. GDPR Impact: The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of 2018 had a ripple effect in Kosovo. While not a member of the EU, Kosovo aimed to align its data protection regulations with the GDPR to facilitate business relationships and potential future EU integration.

  2. Legal Reforms: After 2018, discussions commenced about updating Kosovo’s Data Protection Law to be in line with GDPR, although full alignment is still an ongoing process.

Current State and Challenges

  1. Enforcement and Awareness: Enforcement remains a challenge due to limited resources, lack of awareness among businesses, and limited public knowledge about data protection rights.

  2. Political Status: The non-recognition of Kosovo by some countries affects its ability to engage in international data protection frameworks and to receive technical assistance and resources.

Ongoing Developments

  1. Capacity Building: Efforts are underway to build the capacity of the National Agency for Data Protection and to improve Kosovo’s data protection regime.

  2. Digital Transformation: As Kosovo undergoes digital transformation, issues related to data protection are gaining importance.

  3. EU Integration: The pursuit of closer relations with the EU continues to serve as a driving force for improving data protection standards.

Kosovo's data protection landscape is a work in progress, influenced by its own political circumstances as well as by regional and global developments in data protection law. Keep in mind that this information might be outdated and further changes might have occurred after September 2021.

Kosovo, though not a member of the European Union, has shown interest in aligning its data protection legislation with the GDPR as part of broader aspirations for closer relations with the EU and to facilitate international business relationships. This guide offers an overview of the current status of data protection in Kosovo in relation to GDPR, as of the latest available information up to September 2021.

Guide Contents

  1. Legal Framework

  2. Role of the National Data Protection Agency

  3. Key Principles

  4. Rights of Data Subjects

  5. Obligations of Data Controllers and Processors

  6. Data Transfers

  7. Penalties and Enforcement

  8. Current Challenges

  9. Future Outlook

1. Legal Framework

National Legislation

Kosovo adopted its own Data Protection Law in 2010, which took inspiration from the EU’s Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. This law aims to provide a similar scope of data protection as seen in the EU.

GDPR Influence

The European GDPR has impacted legal discussions in Kosovo, driving local lawmakers to consider updates that would align Kosovo's data protection law more closely with GDPR.

2. Role of the National Data Protection Agency

Kosovo has established a National Data Protection Agency responsible for:

  • Overseeing compliance

  • Investigating breaches

  • Imposing sanctions

  • Providing guidance to organizations

3. Key Principles

Though the national law differs in details from GDPR, several GDPR-like principles are present:

  • Lawfulness, Transparency, and Fairness: Personal data should be processed lawfully and transparently.

  • Purpose Limitation: Data should only be collected for well-defined and legitimate purposes.

  • Data Minimization: Minimum necessary data should be collected.

  • Data Accuracy: Personal data should be accurate and updated as necessary.

4. Rights of Data Subjects

Similar to GDPR, Kosovo’s law provides certain rights to data subjects, such as:

  • Right to Information: Right to know how data is being processed.

  • Right to Access: Right to view one’s own data.

  • Right to Rectification: Right to correct inaccurate information.

  • Right to Deletion: In some cases, the right to have data deleted.

5. Obligations of Data Controllers and Processors

Controllers and processors in Kosovo are expected to:

  • Maintain Records: Record of data processing activities should be kept.

  • Implement Security Measures: To protect personal data from unauthorized access or leaks.

6. Data Transfers

The complexities surrounding Kosovo’s international recognition affect data transfers. However, companies often employ standard contractual clauses or other mechanisms aligned with GDPR to ensure safe data transfers.

7. Penalties and Enforcement

The National Data Protection Agency can impose fines for non-compliance, although the amounts and enforcement are generally not as stringent as in the EU.

8. Current Challenges

  • Limited Awareness: Among businesses and the general populace.

  • Political Context: Non-recognition by some countries affects international data agreements.

  • Resource Constraints: For effective enforcement.

9. Future Outlook

  • Alignment with GDPR: Further legal reforms are expected as Kosovo moves closer to EU data protection standards.

  • Capacity Building: Enhanced resources and tools for the National Data Protection Agency.


Data protection in Kosovo is still evolving, strongly influenced by the GDPR and driven by broader political and economic factors. Organizations in Kosovo aiming to comply with international data protection standards should consider aligning their practices closely with GDPR as a best-practice approach.

Disclaimer: This guide is for informational purposes and should not be considered as legal advice. Always consult with legal professionals for specific guidance.

Note that data protection norms and regulations can change rapidly, so it's advisable to consult the most current resources for the latest information.


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