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MONACO - Data Protection and GDPR Review

Monaco, a sovereign city-state located on the French Riviera, has also felt the impact of global data protection trends despite its small size. This article outlines the history and development of data protection laws in Monaco, showing how the principality has adapted to modern challenges concerning privacy and personal data.

Pre-2000s: A Slow Start

Before the turn of the millennium, Monaco had limited formal regulations concerning data protection. Given its small size and status as a haven for high-net-worth individuals, the focus had traditionally been on banking secrecy rather than broad-based data protection.

Early 2000s: Initial Steps

The early 2000s saw the beginning of a change in approach to data protection, driven partly by global trends and also by Monaco's close relationship with the European Union. While not an EU member, Monaco has strong trade and legal ties to the EU, and European norms have influenced the development of its data protection regulations.

Adoption of Initial Laws

In 2007, Monaco took significant steps by enacting Law No. 1.165, the law concerning the protection of personal information. This law was a cornerstone for personal data protection in Monaco, outlining the responsibilities of data controllers, the rights of individuals, and establishing the need for consent before data collection and processing.

Establishment of Regulatory Body

Alongside the 2007 law, Monaco also established the Commission de Contrôle des Informations Nominatives (CCIN), a regulatory body tasked with overseeing and enforcing data protection regulations in the principality. This was a significant move towards aligning with international data protection standards.

GDPR and European Influence

The advent of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union in 2018 had a ripple effect in Monaco, despite the principality not being an EU member. Given Monaco's economic and social ties to the EU, there was an increased focus on aligning local laws with GDPR principles to ensure seamless interaction between Monaco and EU member states.

Recent Developments

In recent years, Monaco has been proactive in enhancing its data protection capabilities, such as strengthening the CCIN’s monitoring abilities and engaging in public education campaigns on data protection. Workshops, seminars, and training have been conducted to bring local businesses up to speed with the latest developments in data protection and privacy laws.

Current Challenges and Future Outlook

Like many other nations, Monaco faces the challenge of balancing individual privacy with state security needs, especially in the age of digital transformation. The principality is keenly aware of the need to update its policies continually to address emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, big data, and blockchain.


The history of data protection in Monaco is one of increasing sophistication and alignment with international standards, particularly those of the European Union. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected and the importance of data protection continues to grow, Monaco is expected to continue updating and refining its laws and regulations to keep pace with these global trends.

Although not part of the European Union, Monaco maintains a close relationship with EU countries, and its data protection laws have been influenced by European standards, including the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This guide aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of data protection in Monaco in relation to GDPR.

Regulatory Bodies


  • Commission de Contrôle des Informations Nominatives (CCIN): Monaco's data protection authority responsible for the oversight of data protection regulations in the country.

European Union

  • GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation): The EU's data protection framework that standardizes data protection laws across all member states.

Key Concepts

Personal Data

Any information relating to an identified or identifiable individual.

Data Controller

An entity that determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data.

Data Processor

A third-party organization that processes personal data on behalf of the data controller.

Data Subject

The individual whose data is being processed.


Explicit permission from the individual for the processing of their personal data.

Data Protection Laws in Monaco

Monaco's primary data protection law is Law No. 1.165 concerning the protection of personal information, enacted in 2007. This law outlines the obligations of data controllers and processors and the rights of data subjects in Monaco.

Alignment with GDPR

Although Monaco is not part of the EU, the Law No. 1.165 has been influenced by GDPR-like principles, including:

  • Transparency and lawful processing of data

  • Data subject rights

  • Security measures

  • Data breach notifications

Obligations for Data Controllers and Processors

Privacy Policy

Organizations must have a clear and accessible privacy policy explaining how personal data will be collected, processed, and stored.

Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA)

A DPIA may be required for high-risk data processing activities to assess the implications for data subject rights and freedoms.

Data Protection Officer (DPO)

Organizations may need to appoint a DPO, particularly if they engage in large-scale data processing or handle sensitive information.


Organizations are required to maintain records of data processing activities for accountability.

Security Measures

Adequate security measures must be in place to protect personal data from unauthorized access, alteration, or destruction.

Data Breach Notification

In the event of a data breach, organizations must notify the CCIN and affected data subjects within a reasonable timeframe.

Rights of Data Subjects

Right to Access

Individuals have the right to access their personal data and receive information on how it's being processed.

Right to Rectification

Data subjects have the right to correct inaccurate or incomplete information.

Right to Erasure ("Right to be Forgotten")

Individuals can request the deletion of their data under certain conditions.

Right to Object

Data subjects have the right to object to data processing for specific reasons, including direct marketing.

Right to Data Portability

Individuals can request their data in a commonly used, machine-readable format.

Enforcement and Penalties

Non-compliance with data protection laws can result in sanctions and fines, as determined by the CCIN. While the penalties may not be as high as under GDPR, they are still significant and can affect a company’s reputation.


Data protection in Monaco has been influenced by European standards, including GDPR, despite the country not being an EU member. Organizations operating in Monaco need to be aware of both local and EU data protection laws, especially if they process data of EU citizens or do business in the EU. Ensuring compliance with data protection laws is not only a legal obligation but also essential for maintaining consumer trust and avoiding penalties.


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